Tag Archives: Sandy Hook

Shaping and Showcasing Killer Identities: The Example of the Jokela School Shooting

In the blog post published on the 22nd of June 2014, I outlined the ways in which promotion of an identity constructed before a school shooting is a ‘performance’ intended for a particular audience. This post will follow up on this, by looking at the specific example of the Jokela High School incident on the 7th of November 2007. In this case, the eighteen year old perpetrator, Pekka-Eric Auvinen, put together a manifesto package explaining his motives. Prior to this, he engaged in online discussions about school shooters and gave some indication that he would perpetrate his own attack.

 

Eight were killed in the attack perpetrated by Auvinen in an attack on the upper (secondary) school within the Jokela School Centre. Similar to other school shootings, this incident had been planned well in advance. Preparations for Jokela were thought to have started in March 2007 based on Auvinen’s diary entry at that time, which stated intent to carry out an ‘operation against humanity.’ Also included in that diary entry was a desire for this ‘operation’ to be infamous with a lasting impact on society and to inspire others to carry out similar acts.

 

These sentiments were echoed in online debates Auvinen engaged in, taking place in internet communities dedicated to discussing the Columbine school shooting. Auvinen’s interest in this particular attack was explicated in him making a video about the incident: for instance, he put together a montage from the surveillance camera footage of the Columbine attack. Researchers found that the ties to these online groups magnified Auvinen’s desires and went some way to encouraging him to follow through with these in a proper attack. (1) Corresponding with others interested in school shooters has been a feature of other school shootings: for instance, the perpetrator of the Sandy Hook attack compiled a spreadsheet about school shooters and discussed them in detail with others online. (2) In the case of the Jokela school shooter, a clear intention to carry out a school shooting was expressed; although this lacked concrete details such as a date and location.

 

With him having a potential audience within the online community he was part of, Auvinen then uploaded materials to the internet: one of these was a manifesto entitled ‘Natural Selector’s Manifesto.’ (3) Throughout internet discussions, Auvinen had been prone to paraphrasing the quotations of Columbine attacker, Eric Harris about natural selection and being ‘God-like.’ Similar to Harris, in this manifesto, he made scathing comments about certain types of social groups and decried the human race in general. In addition to this document, the final media package constructed the night before his attack included a more detailed manifesto comparing his actions to ‘political violence’ to promote an ideology, videos featuring various mass murderers and a goodbye note for his family. With his fascination with radical ideology and terrorism, Auvinen had originally expressed a desire to target the Parliament in Finland; however, he felt that an attack in a school would create more ‘publicity.’ (4)

 

Considering all of this, it is clear that the online discussions helped both to cultivate an audience for Auvinen and provide him with further details about school shooters. It was clear he admired the Columbine school shooter, Eric Harris, and this was echoed in his manifesto comments about ‘natural selection’ and humanity. This was exemplified further in Auvinen preparing a detailed final manifesto to portray himself and his beliefs in a certain way before carrying out the attack and sending this to the media with the belief that this would bring maximum publicity.

 

[This blog post looked at a specific school shooting incident in Finland. Continuing the international theme, the next post will compare and contrast European school shootings with those occurring in the United States.]

 

  1. Oksanen A., Nurmi J., Vuori M., Räsänen P. (2013) ‘Jokela: The Social Roots of a School Shooting Tragedy in Finland.’ In School Shootings, edited by Böckler N., Seeger T., Sitzer P., Heitmeyer W. New York, NY: Springer, 189-215.
  2. The dangers of ‘school shooter admirers’ was discussed in my blog post published on the 29th of June 2014.
  3. Accordingly, he picked the user name ‘NaturalSelector89’ for his user account on YouTube.
  4. See page 208 of Oksanen A., Nurmi J., Vuori M., Räsänen P. (2013) ‘Jokela: The Social Roots of a School Shooting Tragedy in Finland.’ In School Shootings, edited by Böckler N., Seeger T., Sitzer P., Heitmeyer W. New York, NY: Springer, 189-215.

 

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The Dunblane Shooting: A Tragedy Close to Home

Today marks the twentieth anniversary of the tragic shooting at Dunblane Primary School in Scotland. This incident involved the murder of sixteen schoolchildren and their teacher, as well as the wounding of fifteen others, perpetrated by Thomas Hamilton. The Dunblane shooting was particularly shocking and horrifying, given mass shootings were — and still are — extremely rare in the United Kingdom.

As mentioned in the blog post published on the 14th of April 2014, the Dunblane incident had a lot of parallels with the school shooting that occurred in Sandy Hook Elementary School in the United States: the victims consisted of female staff members and very young children aged five and six; the attacks were perpetrated by adult males, using hollow point bullets as their ammunition. Although the incidents occurred sixteen years apart, the similarities between them meant a comparison could always be drawn between the earlier tragedy in Dunblane, Scotland and the later one in Newtown, Connecticut. Some of the families of the Sandy Hook victims drew upon support and friendship from a handful of the Dunblane parents. Both incidents were so high-profile and shocking that they gave traction to proposals for gun legislation; although the response in the United Kingdom to the Dunblane shooting was far more notable for its blanket ban on the private ownership of handguns, unless ‘good reasons,’ such as pest control for farmers, could be cited.

At the time of the Dunblane shooting, I was also a primary school student (albeit slightly older than the victims) living in Glasgow, Scotland. The resonance and close geographical proximity of the incident meant I was thereafter scared in school, feeling that another attack was likely at my school. One of my teachers used to ask the class where they would hide in the event of a shooting and options for finding help; this further cemented my theory that a shooting at my school was imminent. I also witnessed the changes made to school security policies in the aftermath of Dunblane. Due to the salience of the memory of that time in my life, the Dunblane incident was something I could never forget. Thankfully, there was never another school shooting attack in Scotland or the United Kingdom as a whole since then. Conversely, the United States suffered a spate of them, starting to really become a trend in the 1990s. School shootings also occurred in other countries, including Canada, Germany and Finland. Being horrified by all of these tragic incidents, I decided that something should be done about the problem. With that in mind, I decided to pursue a research project looking at policy solutions to try to prevent school shootings: this eventually became a doctoral thesis. Even though this particular project is finished, I am still pursuing avenues to find a solution to such a horrific crime. There are still too many children out there who are scared to go to school.

This blog post is dedicated to the victims of the Dunblane shooting, their families and the wider Dunblane community.Those who have lost their lives in Dunblane and all other school shootings should never be forgotten.

[This blog post was put together with further reading about the Dunblane and Sandy Hook shootings. The next posting on the 31st March will return to a discussion about policy proposals.]

Sandy Hook and the Arming Teachers Debate

In the blog published on the 30th April 2014, the impact of the Sandy Hook school shooting (2012) on provoking calls to tighten up gun legislation in the United States was deliberated. On the other hand, it also led to legislative proposals in twelve states to allow teachers to carry concealed weapons in elementary, middle and high schools. The rationale behind this ‘arming teachers’ movement by those promoting it is that it would allow teachers to defend against future school shooters, preventing one occurring through deterrence or limiting the death toll if one should transpire. A small town in Texas, Harrold, trained a number of teachers and allow them to carry concealed weapons, purporting that this will be a safer solution than a uniformed security guard, given the identities of the armed teachers will be hidden.
Markedly, the emergence of this is relative to a particular social and historical context. Following the Columbine school shooting, there were only sporadic mentions of arming teachers, which were quickly dismissed. Following the Sandy Hook shooting, however, it seems this issue has begun to be accepted as a viable solution to the problem of school shootings. Analysing YouTube videos on this topic finds that some users blamed the high death toll of the Sandy Hook shooting (six educators and twenty children) on the ban on concealed carry at the elementary school, claiming that an armed teacher could have neutralised the shooter; and, henceforth, that allowing teachers to be armed in schools would negate any future school shootings. This policy response is part of the legacy of fear discussed in an earlier blog and draws upon a neoliberal interpretation of self-defence, where ‘individual responsibility,’ as encompassed by the armed teachers, is paramount.
Despite its straightforward premise of armed teachers prevent school shootings, this issue is a bit more complicated in reality and likely to polarise the American public. Although some parents may feel safer knowing teachers at their children’s schools are armed, it could have the opposite effect on others. There may be teachers, who will feel safer knowing they are carrying weapons; whilst others could be overwhelmed at the onus for saving students and possibly having to shoot one (most school shooters are internal attackers) being put on them. Additionally, an insurance attorney speaking at ‘The Briefings’ in summer 2013, outlined the possible general liability insurance problems associated with arming teachers, due to the possibility of accidental discharge or students stealing the guns. He also maintained that the parameters for self-defence need to be clarified for armed teachers: should teachers use guns to break up physical fights between students or would it be limited to incidents involving weapons; would it also apply off school grounds, such as field trips, sports games at neighbouring schools; is there a possibility the teacher would be held liable if they failed to act in a situation and someone was wounded or killed. There is also the issue of the Heller (2008) and McDonald (2010) Supreme Court rulings, which stipulated restrictions on concealed carry of firearms should still apply to ‘sensitive places’ like schools. Any future Supreme Court rulings centring on this issue should define the parameters of ‘sensitive places,’ so the issue is clear for both supporters and opponents of arming teachers.

[The findings for this blog were taken from research conducted on social media, background reading and the insurance attorney’s presentation at ‘The Briefings.’ Special thanks go to the organisers of ‘The Briefings.’ ]

Creating a Market? The Commercial Products of School Shootings

Bulletproof backpacks, reinforced glass doors, metal detectors: these are all part of an industry centred on averting and negating school shootings. The climate of fear around the possibility of future attacks occurring —discussed in the blog ‘15 Years Since Columbine: A Legacy of Fear,’ published on the 15th April 2014 — creates demand for these products. This is even more likely with knowledge that outside perpetrators (those who are not current or former students or staff) were able to enter schools through the front door: the 2006 Platte Canyon High hostage situation (Bailey, Colorado) involved an outsider entering the school and holding a number of female students at gunpoint for hours and eventually killing one of the young girls and himself; the 2012 Sandy Hook school shooting (Newtown, Connecticut), where an external attacker shot his way through the front door and killed twenty children and six members of staff.
The most immediate response is to ‘target-harden’ educational institutions through renovation or reinforcement of the property’s infrastructure in an attempt to secure it from external attackers and prevent insiders from bringing weapons into the school. When it comes to external attackers, responses tend to centre on obtaining bullet-proof glass doors or adding additional locks and alarms to entrances and classrooms. At the ‘Briefings’ event in summer 2013, a stall had been set up for a company selling reinforced glass and a demonstrator video was shown of multiple rounds being fired into a glass door, until eventually a baseball bat and sledgehammer were used to break through. Something like a door which takes multiple bullets, a baseball and a sledgehammer to enter is an axiomatic choice for target-hardening: it would slow down the attacker and alert people inside to the intrusion. The problem lies in the fact that most school shootings are perpetrated by students or staff. In terms of more school homicides more generally, as explained by the director of the Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence at ‘The Briefings’ event, fewer than one in five deaths occurred inside the building, with the majority taking place in the school parking lot.
In relation to stopping students and staff bringing weapons into schools, metal detectors and handheld wands and x-ray baggage machines are the obvious security choices. The usefulness of such security devices, however, in reducing school violence in general, never mind school shootings, is unclear. There is, firstly, the issue of such expensive equipment only being as effective as the people operating them. Furthermore, experts presenting at a school safety event in 2006, ordered by then-president, George W. Bush, concluded that students would always find a way to circumvent metal detectors. More worryingly, there is the possibility that metal detectors might aid an attack: any internal attacker would know about this daily routine and be able to use it to their advantage to gun down a large number of victims. Risk management must always consider how security mechanisms could go awry or be used to the advantage of attackers.
The final option is perhaps the most disquieting one, for it has a direct link to the danger children will face from gunfire. The Sandy Hook school shooting provoked a 300-400% increase in sales for ‘Bullet Blocker,’ a site which sells bulletproof backpacks and inserts to go in existing backpacks to act as shields for schoolchildren. This business was founded after the Columbine shooting in 1999, when the creator sought a way to protect his own children. The fact that a market exists for these types of products speaks volumes about the legacy of fear originating in the 1999 Columbine attack and further exacerbated by later horrendous shootings at schools. The fact that students themselves are feeling vulnerable (see earlier blog ‘15 Years Since Columbine: A Legacy of Fear’) means that commerical products like bulletproof backpacks are likely to become another commonplace strategy to deal with the threat of potential school shootings.

[Findings for this blog come from presentations at ‘The Briefings,’ literature reviewed and other studies. Special thanks go to my friend, BL, for giving me the idea for this blog and the organisers and presenters of ‘The Briefings.’]

How Sandy Hook Changed the Political Landscape for Gun Reform

On the 16th March 1996, a school shooting took place in Dunblane, Scotland, which irrevocably changed the United Kingdom’s relationship with guns: private firearm ownership was revoked, except in circumstances where individuals could demonstrate ‘good reasons’ for needing them, such as ‘pest control’ and sports shooting. On the 14th December 2012, a school shooting paralleling the Dunblane incident occurred at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut: adult male perpetrators carried out the attacks; similar ammunition (hollow point bullets) was used; the majority of victims were young children aged five and six. Similar to Dunblane, the horrific Sandy Hook shooting acted as a ‘focusing event,’ putting the issues of gun violence and school shootings back on the policy agenda. In the United States, the cultural and historical values attached to guns and constitutional parameters means that the policy debate Sandy Hook triggered was of a different nature to the one in the United Kingdom after Dunblane; although, it was in no way less significant.

Until that day in 2012, prospects for gun reform in the United States had stalled. Calls for action on gun laws were made following a mass shooting in July 2012 at a late night screening of ‘The Dark Knight Rises’ at a cinema in Aurora, Colorado, which killed twelve people and wounded fifty-nine others. With 2012 being an election year, no action was taken by the Obama administration on this occasion. After the Sandy Hook school shooting, however, re-elected President Obama gave a very emotional press conference and appointed a team headed by vice-President, Joe Biden, to put together gun reform proposals. A bi-partisan bill was put together in early 2013 requiring background checks for gun show and internet sales; this failed to pass the Senate by five votes.

This does not mean, however, that policy action in this area has stalled. The political action committees Mayors against Illegal Guns and Americans for Responsible Solutions are funding gun reform campaigns. Other prominent groups like Moms Demand Action, whose particular focus is preventing children becoming victims of gun violence, have emerged. A number of political actors are now on board for change. Public support for universal background checks for all gun sales in polls is high and not particularly partisan in nature. A number of states have managed to introduce background checks bills into their legislatures, with Connecticut, Colorado, Maryland and New York passing landmark laws. All these factors, coupled with the risk of future school shootings occurring, strongly suggest that the tragic Sandy Hook (2012) incident will continue to generate policy responses in future.

[The statements made here are taken from the research findings of my doctoral thesis about the news media and policy responses to school shootings, as well as further background reading.]