Tag Archives: Narcissism

A Threat Assessment Model: Offline Behaviour

The blogs published on the 4th, 8th and 11th June documented the personality characteristics of past school shooters: fragile male identities, a specific form of overt narcissism and fitting the state of ‘egoism’ conceptualised by the sociologist Emile Durkheim. Previous school shooters have shared the following characteristics: feeling a sense of injustice at the world and seemingly blamed everyone else for this; persuaded to carry out their attacks, either by specific persons, groups or predicated on the feeling that they had suffered throughout their lives; blame was bestowed upon everyone else bar the perpetrator for all their problems, tying in with the sense of injustice and persecution they feel; a lack of romantic success exacerbating matters, sometimes leading to stalking and harassment of females; excessive individualism, where the perpetrators felt they were ostracised by others and a lack of connection to society. It seems that the homicide-suicide of school shootings could encourage those with fragile, narcissistic identities in a state of excessive individualism to go through with the violent fantasies in their minds. Moreover, they know that once they have gone through with the murders, the time will come where law enforcement either shoots them dead or arrests them; therefore, they go into the rampages with the clear intention of killing themselves at the end.

With this in mind, a threat assessment model can be developed to be applied to both offline, everyday behaviours. Applying overt narcissism traits — not covert narcissistic characteristics, given they tend to revolve around a general sense of hopelessness and despair, not any active plans to sustain a high sense of self-esteem and demonstrate superiority — to warning signs could be indicative of a potential case for threat assessment: over-reaction (commonly aggressive or passive-aggressive) to the slightest criticism, high self-esteem that needs constant validation; the desire to be infamous and extreme fantasies of success and power, delusions of grandeur; a feeling of superiority combined with a sense of worthlessness; a sense of isolation from others in a particular environment and/or society in general. Taking all this into consideration, it is advised that threat assessments take into account the factors the narcissism and egoism factors outlined above when investigating a potential threat. It is of key importance hereto avoid ‘profiling,’ given this can lead to ‘false positives’ (people who fit the profile but have no intention of carrying out a school shooting) and ‘false negatives’ (where there is no evidence of the traits, but someone has the intention to perpetrate an attack). It is when the traits outlined above are combined with more disconcerting aspects, like fantasising about having power over others, expressing the desire to harm people in the school and intensive shooting practice, that red flags should be raised. The next blog will explore how this model can be coupled with online threats to create a hopefully more robust and thorough model of interrogating potential threats for their harm potential.

[Interested readers are directed to the blogs published on the 4th, 8th and 11th June for further information. A more detailed version of this model will appear in a chapter co-written with Dr. O’Grady to appear in the edited volume Gun Violence in American Society.]

Advertisements

Narcissism: A Threat Assessment Perspective

One of the Columbine shooters claimed: ‘I feel more confident, stronger, and more God-like’ when using guns; whilst the Virginia Tech perpetrator compared himself to biblical figures and spoke of his attack inspiring a revolution. Describing oneself as a God and feeling far superior to others: these are common motivation factors for school shooters, linking to the personality condition ‘narcissism.’

The term originated from the Greek legend of Narcissus, who fell in love with his own reflection, but this condition is so much more than just vanity. The criteria outlined on the ‘Narcissism Personality Inventory,’ a forced choice questionnaire consisting of forty items designed to clinically measure the condition, are: low self-esteem, dominance, egocentricity, a grandiose sense of self-importance or superiority, fantasies of success and power, sensitivity to criticism, feeling indifferent towards others; exploiting interpersonal relationships and expecting favours without reciprocating, a lack of empathy, and alternating between over-idealising and devaluating other people. The combination of these factors seems rather paradoxical: How can one have a grandiose sense of self-importance and low self-esteem? Why alternate between idealising other people and being apathetic towards them?

The key factor here is fragile nature of identity. Identities are constantly being developed throughout the course of one’s life. Even during this process, it is not enough to simply assert an identity; it has to be approved or disproved through the feedback of others. For the narcissist, the grandiose sense of self-importance they hold relies on the validation of others: an ‘admiring audience’ is their equivalent of Narcissus’s pool of water showing his reflection. This means the high self-esteem and superiority they hold are ‘fragile’ in nature and masking a real sense of worthlessness and shame. Important to note here is these characteristics apply to ‘overt narcissism,’ rather than the other ‘covert form’ where those who suffer from it suffer from a feeling of hopelessness and despair.

A sense of injustice at the world and blaming everyone but themselves for their problems, coupled with some form of mental illness, means school shooters believe the attack they perpetrate will make a ‘statement’ to society and gain them some recognition. The school[1] itself becomes the target for internal attackers like the shooters at Red Lake High School and Virginia Tech University, who felt persecuted by specific persons, groups or just in general and blame the school for all their problems: challenging their ideological views about Neo-Nazi ‘racial purity’ in the case of the Red Lake perpetrator; not adjusting to university life and a lack or romantic success — which led to the stalking and harassing of female students — for the Virginia Tech shooter.

In that case warning signs could be indicative of a potential need for threat assessment: over-reaction (commonly aggressive or passive-aggressive) to the slightest criticism, high self-esteem that needs constant validation; the desire to be infamous and extreme fantasies of success and power; delusions of grandeur; a feeling of superiority combined with a sense of worthlessness; and a sense of isolation from others in a particular environment and/or society in general. Clearly, what is important here is the amount of traits (individual, personality ones and environmental and life factors) present: aggregating these over a certain period of time should be indicative of someone’s susceptibility to enacting a school shooting. If there was only evidence of one or two, for example, feeling isolated from school as a result of bullying and over-reacting to slight criticism, this could be attributable to other factors, such as feeling pressure from schoolwork. It is when these are combined with more disconcerting aspects, like fantasizing about having power over others and then intensive shooting practice, that red flags should be raised.

[Narcissism literature and discourse analyses of shooters’ writings were used to produce this post. A longer version of this model will appear in the book volume Gun Violence in American Society, a chapter I co-wrote with colleague, Dr. O’Grady. This model will be further developed in blog posts in the near future]

——————————————————————————–

[1] School here refers to a broad, all-encompassing term of education institutions, including elementary, middle and high schools, as well as colleges and universities.