Category Archives: Uncategorized

Second book coming soon

Hello readers,

I have not posted on here in a while as I’ve been focusing on writing my second book which focuses on policy responses to mass shootings. It will be submitted in the summer and should be available by the end of 2020/early 2021.

Any questions/comments in the meantime, please leave on here.

 

Selina

 

Call for Chapters Extended!

Interested in publishing a chapter in an edited book? My colleague, Dr Markey, and I are editing a volume about mitigating mass violence in contemporary society. Papers on a variety of topics are welcomed: shifting definitions of mass violence; ways to prevent and manage these acts; news media representations of these incidents; the growing use of technology in mass violence attacks.

Further information and details of how to submit are available here:

https://www.igi-global.com/publish/call-for-papers/call-details/4449

The deadline has been extended to 16th December 2019. Please get in touch if you wish to discuss an idea for a paper.

 

 

Call for Chapters

Interested in publishing a chapter in an edited book? My colleague, Dr Markey, and I are editing a volume about mitigating mass violence in contemporary society. Papers on a variety of topics are welcomed: shifting definitions of mass violence; ways to prevent and manage these acts; news media representations of these incidents; the growing use of technology in mass violence attacks.

Further information and details of how to submit are available here:

https://www.igi-global.com/publish/call-for-papers/call-details/4449

Tearing Down Columbine?

In my last blog post published on the 20th of April 2019, I wrote about the legacy of Columbine twenty years on. The school shooting at Columbine High School in which thirteen victims were killed has been cited by numerous subsequent school shooters and aspiring attackers. The most recent example of this involved a female teenager said to have been infatuated with the shooting who travelled to Colorado from Florida, made some threats that were enough to shut down a number of schools and ending up killing herself. Another woman who was stopped in the parking lot of Columbine High School was said to have frequently posted about the Columbine shooters on Tumblr, describing them as ‘God-like.’ Those said to be obsessed with the massacre are described as ‘Columbiners.’ (1)

Littleton, the suburban neighbour where Columbine High School is located, is associated with the site of a high-profile tragedy. Although there has been remodelling of the school, the building more or less stands as it did in 1999. Unfortunately, this has meant it has become somewhat of a macabre attraction for visitors. Superintendent Jason Glass reported that the amount of individuals trying to enter the school building or trespassing in the campus area were the highest on record in 1999. Some of them are coming just to see where the tragedy took place, others coming to pay respect to the victims. (2) There are a minority, however, who may pose a threat. The challenging part is trying to distinguish which of the many threats — which spike exponentially following a new school shooting — are credible. The unprecedented growth in the amount of threats Columbine High faced ahead of the twenty year anniversary coupled with the constant stream of macabre visitors have provoked a debate about whether the school itself should be torn down and rebuilt. Following the Sandy Hook school shooting, the building was demolished and rebuilt. This massacre took place in 2012, however, when the United States had tragically became all-too-familiar with school shootings. In 1999, when Columbine occurred, it seems unlikely that anyone had actually envisaged the infamous status the Columbine shooters and the school itself would take on.

There are those who in favour of doing tearing down Columbine and starting afresh with a new building. The former principal who was in post at the time of the shooting, Frank DeAngelis, supports a new building facility writing in a Facebook post that “it is people that make us a family, not the building.” (3) Similarly, in the community blog about schools in Jefferson County, a letter was submitted by Superintendent Jason Glass in early June 2019 advocating rebuilding the school further away from the road. He advanced some ideas for the new school. These included keeping the name, school mascot and colours the same and preserving the Hope Library that was built in honour of the victims. (4) On the other hand, there are those who feel that this would not solve the problem — particularly if the name Columbine was still retained— or that the building represented a symbol of strength in the community. (5) This debate is likely to unfold over the coming months. Regardless of what Jefferson County School District decide to do about the building, it is likely that the term ‘Columbine’ itself will always be synonymous with a terrible and destructive act of violence.

 

[This blog post was put together using articles about the potential destruction of Columbine High School and previous knowledge about Columbine. The next blog post will look at Jamie’s Law, a bill for purchasing ammunition named in honour of a victim of the Parkland School Shooting.]

(1) Brianna Provenzano. (2019) ‘A “Morbid Fasicnation” with Columbine High School Might Lead to Its Shuttering.’ Pacific Standard, 10 June. Retrieved from https://psmag.com/news/a-morbid-fascination-with-columbine-high-school-might-lead-to-its-shuttering 
Jessica Contrera. (2019) ‘The Man Keeping Columbine Safe.’ Washington Post, 5 April. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/dc-md-va/2019/04/05/its-been-years-since-columbine-shooting-his-job-is-stop-next-attack/?utm_term=.e48d700ae442
(2) Brianna Provenzano. (2019) ‘A “Morbid Fasicnation” with Columbine High School Might Lead to Its Shuttering.’ Pacific Standard, 10 June. Retrieved from https://psmag.com/news/a-morbid-fascination-with-columbine-high-school-might-lead-to-its-shuttering
Jessica Contrera. (2019) ‘The Man Keeping Columbine Safe.’ Washington Post, 5 April. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/dc-md-va/2019/04/05/its-been-years-since-columbine-shooting-his-job-is-stop-next-attack/?utm_term=.e48d700ae442
(3) Julie Turkewitz and Jack Healy. (2019) ‘Columbine High School Could Be Torn Down to Deter copycats.’ The New York Times, June 7. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/07/us/columbine-high-school-demolition.html
(4) Jason Glass. (2019) ‘A New Columbine?’ Advance Jeffco, June 6. Retrieved from https://advancejeffco.blog/2019/06/06/a-new-columbine/
(5) Julie Turkewitz and Jack Healy. (2019) ‘Columbine High School Could Be Torn Down to Deter copycats.’ The New York Times, June 7. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/07/us/columbine-high-school-demolition.html

The Infamy of Columbine: Twenty Years On

Twenty years have passed since twelve students and one teacher were murdered by two students at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado. It seems that the word ‘Columbine’ is so infamous that is requires no explanation. Arguably, there were school shootings prior to the 1999 attack at Columbine High School that were just as shocking: for instance, the Westside Middle School attack in 1998 perpetrated by students aged eleven and thirteen years old. Over the past two decades since Columbine, there have been numerous horrendous school shootings, including ones at Sandy Hook Elementary School and Parkland High School. There have also been mass shooting incidents with a higher death tool such as the Pulse Nightclub massacre and the Las Vegas Strip shooting. None of these, however, have ever quite had the impact of Columbine.

There are a number of reasons for this. Columbine is so infamous. To start with, the news coverage was different to previous school shootings. Broadcast news stations showed footage from the scene of the attack as it unfolded, documenting schoolchildren leaving the school, SWAT teams storming the building and those who had been shot escaping. In one notable example, footage captured a student who had been shot jumped out the window of the library. After the shooting, Columbine continued to generate interest in the news. Debates unfolded about school violence and culture, Gothic culture, bullying, violence in films and mental health. The shooting at Columbine High School was the top news story of 1999, with 68% of viewers claiming they were following it ‘very closely.’ (1)

Columbine also had a notable impact on policy debates. There was strong criticism of the law enforcement response to the attack; additionally, gaps in the existing in emergency management plan for the school were highlighted. This led to changes in emergency management planning across the United States and law enforcement tactics for these types of shooting incidents. Measures to report threats such as the hotline Safe2Tell were set up to. Security measures like metal detectors were also installed in schools throughout the United States. Despite it giving salience to the issue of youth gun violence, gun legislative responses to Columbine were modest in nature. Age restrictions and child safety requirements on firearms were passed in a handful of states. The background checks system was tightened in Oregon and Colorado, the state in which Columbine occurred. There was no action at the federal action, with the policies of the Clinton administration failing to make it through Congress. Twenty years on, Tom Mauser, one of the parents of a victim of the Columbine shooting, is still campaigning for tighter gun laws, wearing the shoes his son, Daniel, died in. (2)

Unfortunately, Columbine also appears to have motivated school shootings that have occurred in the past two decades. It is claimed to have inspired seventy-four ‘copycat’ plots, twenty-one of which actually became mass shootings in schools and other locations. (3) Furthermore, in a compiled list of school shootings from 1999-2007, seven out of nine in the United States and six out of eleven occurring elsewhere in the world referenced the Columbine incident. (4) Some of the other more noteworthy attacks like the shootings at Virginia Tech University in 2007 and Sandy Hook Elementary School in 2012 have involved perpetrators who were interested in the Columbine perpetrators. Thwarted school shooting plots, such as one at Radnor High School devised by a female student, have involved individuals fascinated with the Columbine perpetrators. There was even a threat made against Columbine High School itself this week, made by a female perpetrator who was said to be ‘obsessed’ with the Columbine incident. (5) It appears that the Columbine shooters have become somewhat of a role model for the disenfranchised.

Lessons have been learned from this incident. Policies have been changed. Sadly, further attacks have been inspired by this attack. On the twentieth anniversary of the Columbine shooting, the most important thing is to remember the victims and their families, the survivors and all others affected by the attack. The bravery and dedication showed by those impacted by Columbine is commendable. As said by then-President Clinton “Columbine was a momentous event in the history of our country…Even in the midst of tragedy, we’ve seen the best, the best there is to see about our nation and about human nature.”

[This blog post was written for the twentieth anniversary of the Columbine attack. It was written based on previous research conducted by the researcher relating to school shootings. Regular blog posts will resume in summer 2019.]

 

(1) Pew Research Center (1999) “Columbine Shooting Biggest News Draw of 1999.’”http://www.people-press.org/1999/12/28/columbine-shooting-biggest-news-draw-of-1999/

(2) Christopher Bucktin. (2019) ‘Dad of Columbine shooting victim wears shoes his son died in as he fights gun laws.’ The Mirror, 13th April. https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/dad-columbine-shooting-wears-shoes-14308219

(3) Follman, Mark. 2015. “Inside the Race to Stop the Next Mass Shooter.” Mother Jones November/December edition. http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2015/09/mass-shootings-threat-assessment-shooter-fbi-columbine

(4) Larkin, Ralph W. 2009. “The Columbine Legacy: Rampage Shootings as Political Acts.” American Behavioural Scientist 52: 1309-1326.

(5) BBC News. (2019) “Denver schools close as FBI hunt ‘Columbine-obsessed’ woman.” 17th April. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-47959374

Snapshot 1 (14-04-2019 19-29)

Shaping and Showcasing Killer Identities: The Example of the Jokela School Shooting

In the blog post published on the 22nd of June 2014, I outlined the ways in which promotion of an identity constructed before a school shooting is a ‘performance’ intended for a particular audience. This post will follow up on this, by looking at the specific example of the Jokela High School incident on the 7th of November 2007. In this case, the eighteen year old perpetrator, Pekka-Eric Auvinen, put together a manifesto package explaining his motives. Prior to this, he engaged in online discussions about school shooters and gave some indication that he would perpetrate his own attack.

 

Eight were killed in the attack perpetrated by Auvinen in an attack on the upper (secondary) school within the Jokela School Centre. Similar to other school shootings, this incident had been planned well in advance. Preparations for Jokela were thought to have started in March 2007 based on Auvinen’s diary entry at that time, which stated intent to carry out an ‘operation against humanity.’ Also included in that diary entry was a desire for this ‘operation’ to be infamous with a lasting impact on society and to inspire others to carry out similar acts.

 

These sentiments were echoed in online debates Auvinen engaged in, taking place in internet communities dedicated to discussing the Columbine school shooting. Auvinen’s interest in this particular attack was explicated in him making a video about the incident: for instance, he put together a montage from the surveillance camera footage of the Columbine attack. Researchers found that the ties to these online groups magnified Auvinen’s desires and went some way to encouraging him to follow through with these in a proper attack. (1) Corresponding with others interested in school shooters has been a feature of other school shootings: for instance, the perpetrator of the Sandy Hook attack compiled a spreadsheet about school shooters and discussed them in detail with others online. (2) In the case of the Jokela school shooter, a clear intention to carry out a school shooting was expressed; although this lacked concrete details such as a date and location.

 

With him having a potential audience within the online community he was part of, Auvinen then uploaded materials to the internet: one of these was a manifesto entitled ‘Natural Selector’s Manifesto.’ (3) Throughout internet discussions, Auvinen had been prone to paraphrasing the quotations of Columbine attacker, Eric Harris about natural selection and being ‘God-like.’ Similar to Harris, in this manifesto, he made scathing comments about certain types of social groups and decried the human race in general. In addition to this document, the final media package constructed the night before his attack included a more detailed manifesto comparing his actions to ‘political violence’ to promote an ideology, videos featuring various mass murderers and a goodbye note for his family. With his fascination with radical ideology and terrorism, Auvinen had originally expressed a desire to target the Parliament in Finland; however, he felt that an attack in a school would create more ‘publicity.’ (4)

 

Considering all of this, it is clear that the online discussions helped both to cultivate an audience for Auvinen and provide him with further details about school shooters. It was clear he admired the Columbine school shooter, Eric Harris, and this was echoed in his manifesto comments about ‘natural selection’ and humanity. This was exemplified further in Auvinen preparing a detailed final manifesto to portray himself and his beliefs in a certain way before carrying out the attack and sending this to the media with the belief that this would bring maximum publicity.

 

[This blog post looked at a specific school shooting incident in Finland. Continuing the international theme, the next post will compare and contrast European school shootings with those occurring in the United States.]

 

  1. Oksanen A., Nurmi J., Vuori M., Räsänen P. (2013) ‘Jokela: The Social Roots of a School Shooting Tragedy in Finland.’ In School Shootings, edited by Böckler N., Seeger T., Sitzer P., Heitmeyer W. New York, NY: Springer, 189-215.
  2. The dangers of ‘school shooter admirers’ was discussed in my blog post published on the 29th of June 2014.
  3. Accordingly, he picked the user name ‘NaturalSelector89’ for his user account on YouTube.
  4. See page 208 of Oksanen A., Nurmi J., Vuori M., Räsänen P. (2013) ‘Jokela: The Social Roots of a School Shooting Tragedy in Finland.’ In School Shootings, edited by Böckler N., Seeger T., Sitzer P., Heitmeyer W. New York, NY: Springer, 189-215.